Ekonomi ve Hukuk Dergisi

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75
-2022-

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Göçmen İşçiler ve Sendikalar: Sosyal Haklar ve İkilemler Bağlamında Sendikal Stratejiler

ÖZ

Sendikalar göçmen işçilerin haklarının hem yasal düzeyde oluşturulmasında hem de bu hakların uygulanmasında önemli bir role sahiptir. Sendikalar geçmişten bu yana göçmen politikalarını destekleme veya bu politikalara direnme, göçmenleri sendikalara dâhil etme veya dışlama, örgüt yapıları içinde tüm işçilere eşit davranma veya göçmen işçilere yönelik özel politika ve stratejiler geliştirme gibi ikilemlerle karşı karşıya kalmaktadırlar. Bu çalışma, sendikalar ile göçmen işçiler arasındaki ilişkiye odaklanarak, sosyal haklar ve ikilemler arasında sendikaların göçmen işçilere yönelik farklı politika ve faaliyetlerini ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Uluslararası sendikalar, göçmen işçilere yönelik olarak hak temelli bir yaklaşımı yaygınlaştırmayı, eşit muamelede bulunmayı ve ayrımcılık karşıtı politikaları önererek, göçmenlerin “göçmen işçi” yerine “işçi” olarak kabul edilmeleri gerektiğini savunmaktadırlar. Öte yandan, sendikaların göçmen işçilere yönelmesinde göçmen işçilerin homojen olmayan yapısı, sendikaların ulusal düzeyde sosyal ve ekonomik politikaları etkileme kapasiteleri, felsefi ve örgüt yapıları, ülkedeki ekonomik ve işgücü piyasası koşulları, göçmenlere yönelik kamusal söylem, sendikaların mali gücü etkili ve belirleyici olmaktadır.
Anahtar Kelimeler : Göçmen işçi, düzensiz göçmen işçi, işçi sendikaları, sendika stratejileri, örgütlenme
Migrant Workers and Trade Unions: Union Strategies in the Context of Social Rights and Dilemmas

ABSTRACT

Trade unions have an important role in both the legal establishment of the rights of migrant workers and the implementation of these rights. However, unions have faced dilemmas such as supporting or resisting immigration policies, including or excluding immigrants from unions, treating all workers equally within their organizational structures, or developing unique policies and strategies for migrant workers. By focusing on the relationship between unions and migrant workers, this study aims to reveal the different policies and activities of unions towards migrant workers among social rights and dilemmas. International trade unions promoting a rights-based approach, equal treatment and anti- discriminative policies towards migrant workers, advocating that migrants should be considered as “workers” rather than “migrant workers”. On the other hand, it has been concluded that the heterogeneous structure of migrant workers, the capacity of unions to influence social and economic policies at the national level, their philosophical and organizational structures, economic and labour market conditions in the country, public discourse towards immigrants, and the financial power of the unions are effective and determinant in the orientation of the unions to migrant workers.

Extended Summary

International migration, which has become a global phenomenon, has multidimensional, deep and permanent effects on the labor markets of destination, transit and origin countries. In particular, irregular migrant workers are excluded from social protection, basic rights regarding labour market, and they have economic and social disadvantages such as unemployment, poverty and social exclusion. The interests of migrant workers are not adequately represented in the labor market, and irregular migrant workers are concentrated in precarious, low-paid and informal jobs, they are exposed to serious social rights violations and exploitation in working life, and they cannot access decent working conditions. Trade unions have an important role in both the legal establishment of the rights of migrant workers and the implementation of these rights. It is assumed that both international and national unions adopt a rights-based approach to the organization of migrant workers. Despite this assumption, the relationship between unions and migrant workers is often uncertain and contradictory as a result of universal international solidarity and tensions between migrant workers and domestic workers in the national labour market. This study aims to reveal the different policies and activities of unions towards migrant workers by considering the relationship between migrant workers and unions within the framework of social rights and the dilemmas faced by unions.

Trade union rights of migrant workers are regulated in the basic human rights documents of international organizations and basic documents on migrant workers. The basis of the approach of international basic human rights documents regarding migrant workers is the principle that all people, whether they are citizens or not, should benefit from human rights simply because they are human. However, despite this basic principle, the trade union rights of migrant workers have not been universally accepted by irregular migrant workers. At the national level, there are differences between the regulations of the countries regarding the union rights of migrant workers, and in some countries, unionization of migrant workers, especially irregular migrant workers, is not allowed. Union membership is important for migrant workers to benefit from social rights in the target country and to ensure their economic and social adaptation to these countries. In terms of unions; organizing migrant workers is important in terms of increasing the number of members, eliminating competition between domestic workers and migrant workers, and representing all workers regardless of race, language, religion or origin. However, the relationship between unions and migrant workers has always been full of tensions and dilemmas, and union strategies for migrant workers have always been a controversial issue in the history of the labour movement. Today, the problem of migration and migrant workers is growing and the conditions of irregular migrant workers are getting worse in every aspect with the increasing migration. Unions have important duties in this regard so that the gap in rights between migrant workers and local workers does not increase and the unions do not fall into the trap of the employer’s policies to divide the working class and turn it against each other. Because the unions that avoid producing sustainable and resistive policies towards migrant workers and adopt an exclusionary approach will contribute to the inequalities in the labour market and this will cause the unions to erode their democratic institutions.

Keywords : Migrant worker, irregular migrant worker, trade unions, union strategies, organising

Kaynak Göster

APA
TOKOL, A., & EMİRGİL, B., & . ( 2022). Göçmen İşçiler ve Sendikalar: Sosyal Haklar ve İkilemler Bağlamında Sendikal Stratejiler. Çalışma ve Toplum, 5(75), 2509-2548. https://doi.org/10.54752/ct.1191414